The tables below provide a convenient means of making common calculations in lubricant formulations.
If your browser does not support calculations of this type, please refer to the formulas.
Weight and Volume
Additives are sold by volume or mass; blends can be manufactured either way. Product data sheets provide densities for additive packages that enable conversions to be made:
Additive Density x Additive (%vol) Additive (% mass) =  Density of Finished Oil
Additive Density  Additive (% vol) 
Finished Oil Density  Additive (% mass) 


= 
Sulfated Ash
Oil specifications frequently limit the sulfated ash content of the blend. This limits the amount of metallic elements in the additive package or the maximum treatment level. The contribution of some common additive metals to sulfated ash is:
Element  Factor  Element  Factor 

Barium  1.70  Magnesium  4.95 
Boron  3.22  Manganese  1.291 
Calcium  3.40  Molybdenum  1.50 
Copper  1.252  Potassium  2.33 
Lead  1.464  Sodium  3.09 
Lithium  7.92  Zinc  1.50 
Example: An additive package is recommended for use at 8.5% by mass. The product data sheet gives the following information:
Density at 15°C  0.97 kg/L 
Calcium  0.47% by mass 
Magnesium  1.15% by mass 
Zinc  1.66% by mass 
What will be the sulfated ash content of the finished blend?
Calcium: 0.47(3.40)(8.5)/100 = 0.136
Magnesium: 1.15(4.95)(8.5)/100 = 0.484
Zinc: 1.66(1.5)(8.5)/100 = 0.21
Total Sulfated Ash = 0.136 + 0.484 + 0.21 =
0.83% by mass.
Additive Treating Costs
Gross Additive Treating Cost (GATC) is the cost of additive in one volume unit of finished product not including base fluid credit or shipping costs:
Add. ($/U.S. gal) x % vol GATC $/U.S. gal =  100 Add. Cost ($/kg) x % mass GATC $/liter =  x Density 100
Additive Cost ($/US gal)  Additive (% vol)  GATC ($/US gal)  

= 
Additive Cost ($/kg)  Additive (% mass) 
Density  GATC ($/liter)  

= 
Net Additive Treating Cost (NATC) is the cost of additive in one unit of finished product including base oil credit (BOC), but not shipping costs. (Base oil credit is the cost of oil displaced.)
(Add. Cost  BOC) x % vol NATC $/U.S. gal =  100 (Add. Cost  BOC) x % mass NATC $/liter =  x Density 100
Additive Cost  Base Oil Credit  Additive (% vol) 
NATC ($/US gal) 


= 
Additive Cost  Base Oil Credit  Additive (% mass) 
Density  NATC ($/liter) 


= 
Fuel Consumption
In calculating Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), the automobile industry uses actual consumption figures (expressed as liters/100 km), and may then convert them to the more familiar fuel economy values (miles/U.S. gallon or miles/Imperial gallon) for advertising purposes. The conversions are:
1 liter 235.2 miles 282.5 miles  =  =  100 km U.S. gal Imperial gal